In this tutorial, We will learn about Python Operators, their syntax, and how to use operators in Python.

## What are operators in python?

Operators are special symbols in Python.

They carry out arithmetic or logical computation. The operand is the value that the operator operates on.

#### For example:

>>> 4+5 9

Here, + is the operator that performs addition. 4 and 5 are the operands and 9 is the output of the operation.

### Arithmetic operators

Arithmetic operators are used to performing mathematical operations like addition, multiplication, subtraction, etc.

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

+ | Add two operands or unary plus | x + y+ 2 |

– | Subtract right operand from the left or unary minus | x – y- 2 |

* | Multiply two operands | x * y |

/ | Divide left operand by the right one (always results into float) | x / y |

% | Modulus – remainder of the division of left operand by the right | x % y (remainder of x/y) |

// | Floor division – division that results into whole number adjusted to the left in the number line | x // y |

** | Exponent – left operand raised to the power of right | x**y (x to the power y) |

#### Example #1: Arithmetic operators in Python

a = 10 b = 5 # Output: a + b = 15 print('a + b =',a+b) # Output: a - b = 5 print('a - b =',a-b) # Output: a * b = 50 print('a * b =',a*b) # Output: a / b = 2 print('a / b =',a/b) # Output: a // b = 2 print('a // b =',a//b) # Output: a ** b = 100000 print('a ** b =',a**b) #same as 10*10*10*10*10

#### Output

a + b = 14 a - b = 5 a * b = 50 a / b = 2 a // b = 2 a ** b = 100000

### Comparison operators

We can compare values with the help of Comparison operators. It returns either True or False according to the condition.

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

> | Greater than – True if left operand is greater than the right | a > b |

< | Less than – True if left operand is less than the right | a < b |

== | Equal to – True if both operands are equal | a == b |

!= | Not equal to – True if operands are not equal | a != b |

>= | Greater than or equal to – True if left operand is greater than or equal to the right | a >= b |

<= | Less than or equal to – True if left operand is less than or equal to the right | a <= b |

#### Example #2: Comparison operators in Python

a = 8 b = 5 # Output: a > b is False print('a > b is',a>b) # Output: a < b is True print('a < b is',a<b) # Output: a == b is False print('a == b is',a==b) # Output: a != b is True print('a != b is',a!=b) # Output: a >= b is False print('a >= b is',a>=b) # Output: a <= b is True print('a <= b is',a<=b)

#### Output

a > b is False a < b is True a == b is False a != b is True a >= b is False a <= b is True

### Logical operators

Operator | Meaning | Example |
---|---|---|

and | True if both the operands are true | x and y |

or | True if either of the operands is true | x or y |

not | True if operand is false (complements the operand) | not x |

#### Example 3: Logical Operators in Python

a = True b = False print('a and b is',a and b) print('a or b is',a or b) print('not a is',not a)

#### Output

a and b is False a or b is True not a is False

Here is the truth table for these operators.

### Python Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators are used to comparing (binary) numbers:

Operator | Meaning | Description |
---|---|---|

& | Bitwise AND | Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1 |

| | Bitwise OR | Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1 |

~ | Bitwise NOT | Inverts all the bits |

^ | Bitwise XOR | Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1 |

>> | Bitwise right shift | Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off |

<< | Bitwise left shift | shift left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off |